The features of the scientific method
The researchers do so because they want to be accurate and definite about their findings Re-observation may be made by the same researcher at a different time and place or done by other professionals at some other time or place.
Characteristics of scientific method ppt
Provided by: Wikibooks. Nevertheless, science can begin from some random observation. This contrasts with methods that rely on pure reason including that proposed by Plato and with methods that rely on emotional or other subjective factors. This contrasts with methods that rely on experiences that are unique to a particular individual or a small group of individuals. The more unlikely that a prediction would be correct simply by coincidence, then the more convincing it would be if the prediction were fulfilled; evidence is also stronger if the answer to the prediction is not already known, due to the effects of hindsight bias see also postdiction. Or what is science? Watson but discarded. Occam's Razor serves as a rule of thumb for choosing the most desirable amongst a group of equally explanatory hypotheses. To minimize the confirmation bias which results from entertaining a single hypothesis, strong inference emphasizes the need for entertaining multiple alternative hypotheses. In general scientists tend to look for theories that are " elegant " or " beautiful ". Some of the realities could be directly observed, like the number of students present in the class and how many of them are male and how many female. The purpose of an experiment is to determine whether observations of the real world agree with or conflict with the predictions derived from a hypothesis. For example, while a hypothesis on the existence of other intelligent species may be convincing with scientifically based speculation, there is no known experiment that can test this hypothesis. Verifiability means that an experiment must be replicable by another researcher.
Those who want to be definite and positive are often referred to as positivists. The entire community, especially the scientific community, must have access to the results of the method so that knowledge does not stagnate and progress.
For example, Newton's laws explained thousands of years of scientific observations of the planets almost perfectly. Franklin immediately spotted the flaws which concerned the water content. Scientists are free to use whatever resources they have — their own creativity, ideas from other fields, inductive reasoningBayesian inferenceand so on — to imagine possible explanations for a phenomenon under study.
These outward trappings are part of science. Most experimental results do not produce large changes in human understanding; improvements in theoretical scientific understanding typically result from a gradual process of development over time, sometimes across different domains of science.
The scientific method allows psychological data to be replicated and confirmed in many instances, under different circumstances, and by a variety of researchers.
The features of the scientific method
Newton was able to include those measurements into consequences of his laws of motion. A new technology or theory might make the necessary experiments feasible. Even taking a plane from New York to Paris is an experiment which tests the aerodynamical hypotheses used for constructing the plane. References Bunge, M. The major precepts of the scientific method employed by all scientific disciplines are verifiability, predictability, falsifiability, and fairness. Applying the scientific method to psychology, therefore, helps to standardize the approach to understanding its very different types of information. Therefore, science itself can have little to say about the possibility. The conjecture might be that a new drug will cure the disease in some of those people. In subsequent modifications, it has also subsumed aspects of many other fields such as biochemistry and molecular biology. Any interference of their personal likings and dis-likings in their research can contaminate the purity of the data, which ultimately can affect the predictions made by the researcher. The Basic Steps of the Scientific Method The basic steps in the scientific method are: Observe a natural phenomenon and define a question about it Make a hypothesis, or potential solution to the question Test the hypothesis If the hypothesis is true, find more evidence or find counter-evidence If the hypothesis is false, create a new hypothesis or try again Draw conclusions and repeat—the scientific method is never-ending, and no result is ever considered perfect In order to ask an important question that may improve our understanding of the world, a researcher must first observe natural phenomena. A statistical hypothesis is a conjecture about a given statistical population. Scientists assume an attitude of openness and accountability on the part of those conducting an experiment. However, these laws were then determined to be special cases of a more general theory relativity , which explained both the previously unexplained exceptions to Newton's laws and predicted and explained other observations such as the deflection of light by gravity. Replicable Experiments Scientific experiments are replicable.
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