Essays on second language learning theories
Krashens theory of second language acquisition
Interview data for students in flow that indicated positive perceptions of any of the four flow dimensions served as confirmatory evidence that flow did occur in the classroom and as support for conclusions about task characteristics. The second stage followed a semi-structured interview format, with 14 of the original 20 subjects, taking four aspects of motivation as a dynamic phenomenon: 1. Studies in Second Language Acquisition For this to occur, Krashen mentioned three claims that must be satisfied for this hypothesis to work: 1. In conclusion, grammatical knowledge is very important in second language acquisition. Ten Commandments for motivating language learners: results of an empirical study. The use of symbols and tools are very relevant in learning because they speed up the process of learning itself. These mental blocks inhibit a student from absorbing more information and inevitably, learning more. However, it can also be negative if a language structure from the L1 does not exist in the L2 but the structure is transferred leading to the production of incorrect language. The pace of the learning and the comprehension level are based on socio-cultural factors. Implications of the Socio-Cultural Theory: According to the socio cultural theory, the first condition of proximal development leads us to safely assume that until and unless people are given a chance to interact with others, their learning curves will not be as productive as otherwise Lantolf
They use principles in English which do not operate in Japanese. Context reduced communication provides fewer communication clues to develop a more comprehensive learning technique.
Implications for Krashen Theory: Krashen identified the input hypothesis which claims that when students are given inputs a little higher than their level, they develop more comprehensive second language acquisition. Motivational evolution over time 5 questions 2. The object pronouns are placed after the verb in English and Arabic.
The implications of each theory discussed initially will be elaborated to form detailed discussions on the impact of the theories on effective second language teaching.
Second language acquisition theories ppt
They claim that the differences between L1 and L2 are not necessarily difficult, citing as an example the difference between English and French in terms of unstressed object pronouns. Funiber I could describe my context as the virtual classroom, one in which my learners motivation comes from an intrinsic enjoyment of using Information Communication Technology ICT. These were deemed to be stronger than integrative or instrumental motives. However, it can also be negative if a language structure from the L1 does not exist in the L2 but the structure is transferred leading to the production of incorrect language. Further questionnaire survey research has looked at motivational strategies within the classroom, by questioning both the beliefs and practices of Hungarian teachers of English Drnyei and Csizr, This nativist approach states that learning language is part of the genetic makeup of human species and is nearly independent of any particular experience which may occur after birth. The object pronouns are placed after the verb in English and Arabic. The Modern Language Journal. Universidad de las Palmas de Gran Canaria , pp 5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis suggests that learners with low motivation and negative views of the target language receive little Input, while learners with more motivation received and acquire much from the Input they are exposed to. Cook, Saville-Troike says that one way is to help learners within the ZPD is through scaffolding which is defined as verbal guidance which an expert helps a learner to solve a specific task or collaboration of peers to solve a task that is difficult for any one of them individually. Each learner passes through the stages one by one, gaining more experience, knowledge and information as time progresses. Ten Commandments for motivating language learners: results of an empirical study.
An alternative approach is to carry out focus group interviews first, in order to narrow the focus. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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