An analysis of the italian renaissance and its representatives

Renaissance humanism

He was not a devout Neoplatonist like Ficino, but rather an Aristotelian by training and in many ways an eclectic by conviction. The same can be said of the term Middle Ages, and of the words medieval and modern. On land, these wars were primarily fought by armies of mercenaries known as condottieri , bands of soldiers drawn from around Europe, but especially Germany and Switzerland, led largely by Italian captains. However, people who were living during the Renaissance did see themselves as different from their Medieval predecessors. He argued that pleasure, according to Epicurus, is not opposed to virtue, but both guided and produced by it. In the treatise In calumniatorem Platonis Against the Calumniator of Plato , Cardinal Bessarion — defended Plethon against the charge levelled against his philosophy by the Aristotelian George of Trebizond — , who in Comparatio philosophorum Aristotelis et Platonis A Comparison of the Philosophers Aristotle and Plato had maintained that Platonism was unchristian and actually a new religion. A fundamental belief among the humanists was that a ruler needs to cultivate a number of qualities, such as justice and other moral values, in order to acquire honour, glory, and fame. They show him to have been aware of, and able to turn to advantage, the changing and broadening attitude of his time. References and Further Reading 1. Much of the remainder of this book will deal with the Renaissance outside Italy. During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Italy was divided into a number of different city states. In addition to his drawings, he kept voluminous notebooks. The conclusion may be that men have great stores of unusual ability and talent and that certain conditions can unlock them and help them to develop freely. On the other hand, the period we call the Renaissance contained a number of elements normally referred to as "medieval.

The behavior of water what we would call hydraulics received a great deal of attention from him. Even less is this true in the northern Renaissance, as will be shown later.

Italian renaissance characteristics

The Medici became the town's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries. Perhaps it would also be safe to say that the rate of change was more rapid than it had been for several centuries. Mannerism High Renaissance painting evolved into Mannerism in Florence. The term "the scientific revolution" has come into common use to designate the great developments that began with the work of Copernicus and others in the sixteenth century. Thus Pico vindicates man's infinite potential and his freedom. Like Pico he was first a Christian and found man's true end to be the immortal bliss of the soul when it reaches salvation. He considered in detail the ancient Skeptical arguments about the unreliability of information gained by the senses or by reason, about the inability of human beings to find a satisfactory criterion of knowledge, and about the relativity of moral opinions. The Renaissance ideal was fully adopted by the ruling classes and the aristocracy. The differences, however, were matters of degree, not of kind. In time of peace, he can construct buildings, "carry out sculpture in marble, bronze or clay, and also I can do in painting whatever can be done, as well as any other, be he who may. The facts of an urban environment and a society dominated by laymen do not explain literary and artistic genius, political and historical insight, or philosophical activity. As we shall see in subsequent chapters, both of these movements were inspired by a deep religious zeal and a concern for the state of the church, which were far from the secularism that is often identified with the Renaissance. Much attention has been devoted to the civilization of the Middle Ages, and the tremendous achievements of the period are now appreciated at their full value. The most balanced answers to them that are now possible would seem to be these. Mikkeli, H.

Another substantial work is De fato, de libero arbitrio et de praedestinatione Five Books on Fate, Free Will and Predestinationwhich is regarded as one of the most important works on the problems of freedom and determinism in the Renaissance. Best Collections of Renaissance Art The following Italian galleries have major collections of Renaissance paintings or sculptures.

Italian renaissance facts

In contrast to the extreme ethical stance of the Stoics, they preferred the more moderate Peripatetic position, arguing that it provides a more realistic basis for morality, since it places the acquisition of virtue within the reach of normal human capacities. Was there, indeed, any essential difference between the two? In the Renaissance there are both internal contradictions and points of continuity with the Middle Ages. He was also well acquainted with the humanistic learning of the day, an eager student of the classics. Perhaps in the wistful beauty of his Aphrodite something may be found of the nostalgia for the Middle Ages towards which, eventually, when the fundamentalist monk Savonarola denounced the Medici and all their works, he made his passionate gesture of return. He draws upon Platonic and Neoplatonic sources, as well as on the cosmology and metaphysics of Jewish and Arabic thinkers, which are combined with Aristotelian sources in order to produce a synthesis of Aristotelian and Platonic views. The Medici became the town's leading family, a position they would hold for the next three centuries. Leon Battista Alberti was a member of a distinguished Florentine family that had been caught up in the city's internal political conflicts, with exile as the consequence. The Renaissance ideal was fully adopted by the ruling classes and the aristocracy. Paganini, G. Another work that became very popular was De vita libri tres Three Books on Life, by Ficino; it deals with the health of professional scholars and presents a philosophical theory of natural magic. Smaller courts brought Renaissance patronage to lesser cities, which developed their characteristic arts: Ferrara , Mantua under the Gonzaga , and Urbino under Federico da Montefeltro. Alberti was architect, sculptor, painter, musician, and writer of treatises on the theory of the arts. The behavior of water what we would call hydraulics received a great deal of attention from him.

According to Telesio, the only things that must be presupposed are passive matter and the two principles of heat and cold, which are in perpetual struggle to occupy matter and exclude their opposite.

The conclusion may be that men have great stores of unusual ability and talent and that certain conditions can unlock them and help them to develop freely.

examples of humanism in italian renaissance art

The desire of the period for knowledge may partly account for this abstract pursuit, but it held more specific origins and reasons. Over the centuries the notion took root and expanded, until eventually the word Renaissance came to be used, as it still is, to designate an entire historical epoch.

italian renaissance art

In England, Milton is now regarded as a Renaissance figure, and this would continue the period well into the second half of the seventeenth century.

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THE MEANING OF THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE INTERPRETATION AND SYNTHESIS