Nationally, the rate of confirmed AIDS cases in federal and state prisons is more than 7 times higher than in the general U.
Almost one-half of all prisoners are African American 48 percent, compared with 11 percent in the population at large. There is a clear distinction between experimental drug treatments used primarily for the benefit of the imprisoned HIV-infected patients and those used to test the hypotheses of drug developers or others.
The study illustrates the difficulties in sorting out the discrete impact of incarceration.
Prison life is hard. Associated Press Pink bracelets for homosexuals in Florida jail are challenged.
A group convened by the Division of Law and Ethics in the Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine at Montefiore Medical Center in New York City concluded that a reasonable interpretation of federal research regulations currently in effect would allow participation of prisoners in clinical trials so long as use of a placebo is not part of the study design Hammett and Dubler, ; Dubler and Sidel, When evidence from all of these sources is adduced, it is not a simple matter to sort out the impact of HIV on prisons versus that of overcrowding, other threats to health and safety, and the lack of funds, equipment, and trained health care personnel.
Federal Bureau of Prisons, Washington, D.
Where HIV testing is not mandatory, prisoners require more information than others to make informed decisions about taking the test or participating in HIV-related studies.
Raw numbers of cases are not necessarily directly proportionate to the social impact of AIDS.In addition to intake screening for TB, subsequent routine follow-up and surveillance programs are essential for inmates and prison staff. This virus attacks T-cells T-cells play a huge role in cell immunity , and replicates itself among the attacked T-cells. However, a prisoner with AIDS lies in a lowly cell with no support from the public. Medical personnel, public-health advisers, correctional administrators, legislators, courts, and the electorate have developed policies for management of HIV in prisons. Franks, J. Castro, J. Increasing staff-to-prisoner ratios, classifying and housing inmates carefully, decreasing overcrowding, and providing activities for inmates help to prevent transmission through nonconsensual risk behavior eg, violence, including rape. Routine TB testing of inmates at intake is performed variably in U. Montefiore Medical Center Rikers Island health services. Prior to their incarceration, 85 percent of female prisoners had custody of their children compared with 47 percent of male prisoners. It is difficult to find a simple indicator of inmates' socioeconomic level, but some estimates have put the proportion of inmates who are poor at as high as 90 percent Montefiore Medical Center, The growing prison population has resulted in significant overcrowding, which may be the most intractable problem in all jurisdictions. Almost one-half of all prisoners are African American 48 percent, compared with 11 percent in the population at large. The behavioral aspects of HIV disease—its spread through the sharing of contaminated injection paraphernalia and unprotected sexual intercourse—is a reminder of both the sexual and drug-using behavior that continues to take place in prisons. Procedural due process and the segregation of HIV-positive inmates.
According to Jan Diamond, a physician at the California Medical Facility at Vacaville State Prison quoted in Smith, : The prison administration knows they do not have the capacity to handle everyone who is infected, so they are not eager to find out.